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By Donald MacDonald

9 million humans stopover at the Golden Gate Bridge every year, but what number understand why it truly is painted that lovely coloration of"international orange"? Or that historic Mayan and paintings Deco constructions encouraged the layout? present bridge architectDonald MacDonald solutions those questions and others in a pleasant, informative examine the bridge's engineering and 70-year historical past. This obtainable account is observed through 70 of MacDonald's personal fascinating colour illustrations, making it effortless to appreciate how the bridge used to be designed and developed. a desirable learn for these attracted to structure, layout, or a person with a gentle spot for San Francisco, Golden Gate Bridge is a becoming tribute to this undying icon.

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Why no longer? One cause bankruptcy 60 miles south of San Francisco, one in every of its spans col- CHAPTER 6 T H E T W E N T Y- F I R S TCENTURY BRIDGE “Because of its very good layout, its background of important structural advancements, and ongoing upkeep application, the Bridge has a existence span predicted at two hundred years. ” —Seismic Retrofit record, 1994 SEISMIC enhancements Retrofits on the Golden Gate Bridge all started greater than fifty years in the past and feature integrated 3 significant variations. the 1st all started after the howling gales of one December 1951, which brought on minor yet visible harm. Clifford Paine, one of many bridge’s unique engineers and head of a examine at the 1940 Tacoma Narrows catastrophe, prompt the addition of stiffening girders criss-crossed among the chords beneath the whole roadway. The plan used to be approved. within the early Seventies, the entire suspender ropes have been changed after corrosion was once came across close to the gusset plates on the junction of a few ropes and floor-system chords. This took approximately 4 years to accomplish. paintings at the roadway used to be subsequent. through the bridge’s 40th anniversary in 1977, greater than 500 million cars had crossed it, and cracks have been commencing to look within the street. Fog and salt air sifted into cracks within the concrete and deposited salt chloride into its grain, attaining three kilos consistent with cubic backyard. Residue from GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE Opposite: determine sixty four towers, the fortress element arch may uplift and circulation, and weight and peak, and the chloride used to be consuming into the south pylons can be widely broken. substitute the line. In August 1985, after 401 days and A thirteen. 3-million-dollar retrofit, meant to reinforce the bridge adequate to outlive an earthquake as much as magazine- fifty two. five million money, the activity was once done—and the shrink nitude eight. three, started, together with structural advancements lanes widened a foot to deal with the super and efforts to take care of the bridge's aesthetic integrity raise in either site visitors and automobile dimension. the recent, stron- and visual appeal (Figure 64). it's too pricey to ger highway used to be additionally lighter by means of a few 11,000 plenty. but the easily exchange the bridge: in 1994-95, the price of highway is consistently inspected and stored up: the girders doing so used to be anticipated at 1. four billion funds. The stay freed from rust and the basis piers safe. towers and origin in their helps have been power- After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, even though, ened and metal parts on the south and north viaducts a vulnerability research indicated that extra paintings wanted changed. Perforated metal plates changed horizontal to be performed. The bridge used to be at risk of critical dam- laced trusses lower than the roadway and joined vertical age in an earthquake with a Richter significance of seven or helps. Diagonal field beams below the deck have been higher and an epicenter close to the bridge. prone to further for additional energy. on the citadel element Arch, endure the best harm could be the southern load paths have been altered to avoid the severe arch rib and northern method viaducts, that could simply participants, and a few laced individuals have been changed cave in.

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